Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has declared cyber security "the new frontier of warfare" and espionage, while announcing new measures to protect Australian democracy from foreign interference.
Intelligence officials will host unprecedented security briefings with party officials in Canberra next month, amid concerns they may be vulnerable to foreign cyber attacks.
Mr Turnbull said the Government had been shocked by a United States intelligence report claiming Russia ordered a hidden campaign to influence the US presidential election.
Other nations learning from Russian activities: expert
Timothy Wellsmore, director of threat intelligence at global cyber security firm FireEye, said the threats to Australia went beyond China and Russia.
"We've seen some activities in this region from places that you wouldn't expect — like Indonesia [and] even Vietnam," said Mr Wellsmore, who formerly worked as a manager at the Australian Cyber Security Centre.
"There are a lot of other nations that will learn from Russian activities and will turn their offensive capabilities towards [targeting political interests] — if they haven't already."
Assistant Minister for Cyber Security Dan Tehan said every Australian political party must be vigilant and raised some concern about the upcoming Western Australia and Queensland elections.
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